Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Interventional Radiology - Original Article

Adverse effects of irreversible electroporation of malignant liver tumors under CT fluoroscopic guidance: a single-center experience


Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany


Department of Center for Clinical Studies, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Diagn Interv Radiol 2015; 21: 471-475
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2015.14442
Read: 370 Downloads: 56 Published: 03 September 2019



We aimed to describe the frequency of adverse events after computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) of malignant hepatic tumors and their risk factors.



We retrospectively analyzed 85 IRE ablation procedures of 114 malignant liver tumors (52 primary and 62 secondary) not suitable for resection or thermal ablation in 56 patients (42 men and 14 women; median age, 61 years) with regard to mortality and treatment-related complications. Complications were evaluated according to the standardized grading system of the Society of Interventional Radiology. Factors influencing the occurrence of major and minor complications were investigated.



No IRE-related death occurred. Major complications occurred in 7.1% of IRE procedures (6/85), while minor complications occurred in 18.8% (16/85). The most frequent major complication was postablative abscess (4.7%, 4/85) which affected patients with bilioenteric anastomosis significantly more often than patients without this condition (43% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.010). Bilioenteric anastomosis was additionally identified as a risk factor for major complications in general (P = 0.002). Minor complications mainly consisted of hemorrhage and portal vein branch thrombosis.



The current study suggests that CT fluoroscopy-guided IRE ablation of malignant liver tumors may be a relatively low-risk procedure. However, patients with bilioenteric anastomosis seem to have an increased risk of postablative abscess formation.

EISSN 1305-3612