Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Interventional Radiology - Original Article

Classification of reflux patterns in patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency and correlation with clinical severity

1.

School of Medicine,Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey

2.

University of Health Sciences, Adana Health Practices and Research Center, Adana, Turkey

3.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Koç University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Diagn Interv Radiol 2021; 27: 219-224
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2021.19580
Read: 426 Downloads: 104 Published: 19 January 2021

PURPOSE 
This study aims to establish a clinically applicable classification of reflux patterns in patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency and to evaluate the relationship between this classification, the demographics, and severity of clinical findings.

METHODS
This is a retrospective study from prospectively collected data of 503 patients who had the complaint of varicose vein. All patients had complete physical examination and their medical history was recorded. Lower limbs of all patients were examined with Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 787 limbs with great saphenous vein insufficiency were included in the analysis. The reflux patterns of great saphenous vein insufficiency were classified into 4 types as: type 1, great saphenous vein reflux without involvement of malleolar region and saphenofemoral junction (SFJ); type 2, reflux involving malleolar region with competent SFJ; type 3, reflux involving SFJ with competent malleolar region; and type 4, reflux involving both the SFJ and the malleolar region. We evaluated the association between the classification of great saphenous vein insufficiency and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathophysiological elements (CEAP) classification and venous clinical severity score (VCSS).

RESULTS
The mean age of the patients was 45.3±11.7 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:3. The most common reflux pattern in patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency was type 3 (48.9%), while 14.8% of patients had type 1, 10.4% had type 2, and 25.7% had type 4. Patients with type I reflux pattern were younger in age (p = 0.002), had lower BMI (p = 0.002), fewer number of children (p = 0.008), as well as milder clinical severity score (p = 0.002) compared to other reflux types. Duration of disease symptoms was not significantly correlated with the reflux patterns, but VCSS increased with the involvement of malleolar region as in type 2 compared to type 1 (2.82±1.67 vs. 2.74±2.31), and further increased with the involvement of SFJ as in type 3 (4.13±2.92 vs. 2.82±1.67). Patients with diffuse reflux pattern (type 4) had the most severe clinical presentation (4.59±2.9).

CONCLUSION
We developed a clinically applicable classification of reflux patterns in patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency based on the involvement of malleolar region and/or SFJ. We showed an association between weight, BMI, VCSS, CEAP classification and the extent of insufficiency.

You may cite this article as: Yılmaz S, Çakır Peköz B, Dincer N, Deniz S, Oğuzkurt L. Classification of reflux patterns in patients with great saphenous vein insufficiency and correlation with clinical severity. Diagn Interv Radiol 2021; 27: 219–224

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