Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Forensic Radiology - Original Article

CT evaluation of medial clavicular epiphysis as a method of bone age determination in adolescents and young adults


Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Pamukkale, Denizli, Turkey

Diagn Interv Radiol 2016; 22: 241-246
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2016.15355
Read: 483 Downloads: 128 Published: 03 September 2019



We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not.



Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system.



Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. 



CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years.

EISSN 1305-3612