Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Neuroradiology - Original Article

Functional MRI compliance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


Department of Psychology, Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus


Department of Psychology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey


Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc., Ankara, Turkey


Department of Radiology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey


Department of Neuroadiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Diagn Interv Radiol 2015; 21: 85-92
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2014.14006
Read: 738 Downloads: 277 Published: 03 September 2019



We aimed to test the effect of prescan training and orientation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to investigate whether fMRI compliance was modified by state anxiety.



Subjects included 77 males aged 6–12 years; there were 53 patients in the ADHD group and 24 participants in the healthy control group. Exclusion criteria included neurological and/or psychiatric comorbidities (other than ADHD), the use of psychoactive drugs, and an intelligence quotient outside the normal range. Children were individually subjected to prescan orientation and training. Data were acquired using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and an 8-channel head coil. Functional scans were performed using a standard neurocognitive task.



The neurocognitive task led to reliable fMRI maps. Compliance was not significantly different between ADHD and control groups based on success, failure, and repetition rates of fMRI. Compliance of ADHD patients with extreme levels of anxiety was also not significantly different.



The fMRI compliance of ADHD children is typically lower than that of healthy children. However, compliance can be increased to the level of age-matched healthy control children by addressing concerns about the technical and procedural aspects of fMRI, providing orientation programs, and performing on-task training. In patients thus trained, compliance does not change with the level of state anxiety suggesting that the anxiety hypothesis of fMRI compliance is not supported.

EISSN 1305-3612