Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Contrast Media - Original Article

In vivo nephroprotective efficacy of propolis against contrast-induced nephropathy


Department of Radiology, Sütçü İmam University School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey


Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Erciyes University Agriculture Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey


Elazığ Veterinary Control and Research Institute, Elazığ, Turkey


Department of Radiology, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey


Department of Biophysics, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydın, Turkey

Diagn Interv Radiol 2015; 21: 317-321
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2015.14075
Read: 697 Downloads: 260 Published: 03 September 2019



Contrast agents administered in diagnostic imaging or interventional procedures of clinical radiology may cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Preventive measures against CIN involve pharmaceutical pretreatments, such as N-acetylcystein (NAC) or calpain, but alternative medicines can also be helpful. This study aims to assess the prospects of a natural compound, propolis, as a potential nephroprotector against a specific contrast agent, diatrizoate.



In vivo experiments were performed on 35 male rats in five groups: control, diatrizoate alone, and pretreatments with propolis, NAC, or calpain one hour before diatrizoate administration. Three days later, blood and renal tissue samples were collected and quantitatively processed for determining induced changes in critical biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as serum creatinine and plasma urea.



Diatrizoate increased creatinine (113%), urea (400%), and MDA (162%) levels and decreased GSH (-71%), SOD (-69%), GSH-Px (-77%), and CAT (-73%) levels. Evaluating the response of each pretreatment provided sufficient evidence that propolis was as effective as either NAC or calpain, but consistently more prominent in restoring the MDA, GSH, SOD, and GSH-Px levels close to their normal range. This outcome demonstrated the nephroprotective effect of propolis against CIN.



Propolis protects renal tissue against toxicity, free radicals, and other adverse effects induced by diatrizoate. This function is most likely exerted through the antioxidant and antitoxic activities of propolis.

EISSN 1305-3612