Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Abdominal Imaging - Review

Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary: a comprehensive review and update for radiologists

1.

Department of Radiology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Institute of Anatomy, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

2.

Department of Radiology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon, Portugal

Diagn Interv Radiol 2015; 21: 277-286
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2015.34414
Read: 711 Downloads: 170 Published: 03 September 2019

Abstract

Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are infrequent and represent approximately 7% of all primary ovarian tumors. This histopathologic ovarian tumor group differs considerably from the more prevalent epithelial ovarian tumors. Although sex cord-stromal tumors present in a broad age group, the majority tend to present as a low-grade disease that usually follows a nonaggressive clinical course in younger patients. Furthermore, because the constituent cells of these tumors are engaged in ovarian steroid hormone production (e.g., androgens, estrogens, and corticoids), sex cord-stromal tumors are commonly associated with various hormone-mediated syndromes and exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from hyperandrogenic virilizing states to hyperestrogenic manifestations. The World Health Organization sex cord-stromal tumor classification has recently been revised, and currently these tumors have been regrouped into the following clinicopathologic entities: pure stromal tumors, pure sex cord tumors, and mixed sex cord-stromal tumors. Moreover, some entities considered in the former classification (e.g., stromal luteoma, stromal tumor with minor sex cord elements, and gynandroblastoma) are no longer considered separate tumors in the current classification. Herein, we discuss and revise the ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the different histopathologic types and clinicopathologic features of sex cord-stromal tumors to allow radiologists to narrow the differential diagnosis when facing ovarian tumors.

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EISSN 1305-3612