E-ISSN 1305-3612
Interventional Radiology - Original Article
Percutaneous cryoablation in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of local tumor progression factors
1 Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea  
Diagn Interv Radiol ; : -



PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cryoablation (PC) for early or very early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and assess the risk factors for local tumor progression (LTP) after PC.


METHODS: The 45 treatment-naïve patients treated with PC for early or very early stage HCCs were included in this retrospective study. The safety of PC was evaluated by evaluating procedure-related complications and comparing hepatic function before and after the procedure. The efficacy was assessed by evaluating technical success, LTP rates, and disease progression (DP) rates. Prognostic factors associated with local tumor progression after PC were also analyzed.


RESULTS: The technical success and complete response were achieved in all patients (100%) by 1 month after PC. During the mean 28.1 ± 15.6-month follow-up interval, the incidences of LTP and DP were 11.1% and 37.8%, respectively. The LTP-free and DP-free survival rates were 93.3% and 84.4% at 1 year and 88.9% and 62.2% at 2 years, respectively. Hepatic function was normalized within 3 months after PC. There was no major complications and only one minor complication of small hematoma. On univariate and multivariate analysis, minimal ablative margin < 5 mm was the only significant risk factor associated with LTP.


CONCLUSION: PC is a safe and effective therapy for patients with early or very early stage HCC. Minimal ablative margin < 5 mm was a significant prognostic factor for LTP.

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