E-ISSN 1305-3612
Breast Imaging - Original Article
Is gynecomastia related to the disease characteristics and prognosis in testicular germ cell tumor patients?
1 Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey  
2 Clinic of Radiology, Gölcük Necati Çelik State Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey  
Diagn Interv Radiol ; : -

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the relationship between gynecomastia and tumor markers, histological subtypes, and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.


Methods
: This study included 73 testicular germ cell cancer patients with pre-treatment chest and abdominopelvic CT scans and tumor markers (β-human chorionic gonadotropin [β-hCG], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], α-fetoprotein [AFP]). The volumetric analysis of the breast glandular tissue, the presence of gynecomastia and metastatic disease were determined using CT scans. Patients were classified according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) prognostic classification. The association between gynecomastia, breast glandular tissue volume, tumor markers, metastatic disease, and disease prognosis were evaluated.


Results
: Thirty-four of the patients (46.6%) had gynecomastia. A breast volume cut-off value of 0.78 cm3 to diagnose gynecomastia led to 85% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Serum β-hCG level correlated with the breast glandular tissue volume weakly (r = 0.242, p= 0.039). Gynecomastia was more common in patients with elevated β-hCG levels (p = 0.047), and was not associated with pulmonary, non-pulmonary distant, or nodal metastases (p = 0.378, p = 0.884, p = 0.333, respectively). No significant association was found between the disease prognosis and gynecomastia (p = 0.556).


Conclusion
: Gynecomastia was common among testicular germ cell cancer patients with elevated β-hCG. However, it was not associated with metastatic disease and prognosis.

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